The conceptual approach of AccCellBaT starts with defining development use cases from automotive and stationary battery system development (see Figure 2). From these use cases, the battery system requirements, specification, and system concept (architecture) are derived. The hybrid design verification and validation plan (DVP) is created and required models and proto-types are identified. These models are developed to simulate performance, reliability, and safety properties. The analysis of failure modes relevant for the system concept is used to guide model development. The models are validated and used to establish digital twins. In parallel, physical prototypes are manufactured and used for parameter measurements and testing. Both digital twins and physical prototypes are utilised by the hybrid DVP for validating the battery system. The hybrid DVP is augmented by the confidence index, which quantifies the confidence in battery system validation. All data artefacts are captured and seman-tically linked in a collaboration tool to establish the digital twins and manage the hybrid DVP.

All these building blocks of the AccCellBaT approach are validated with the two use cases from automotive and stationary battery systems.